view of nature is also reflected in their landscape paintings. The
sky, mountains, lakes, waterfalls,
rocks, and trees are proportionally much larger than human figures.
While the Western landscape paintings mostly show human figures
as larger than the landscape and its elements.
introduced in Japan in 552, 594, with Prince Shotoku, as one of
the critical figures in the expansion of Buddhism in Japan. Buddhism's
presence from the sixth century on played two major roles in development
of Japanese art and beauty. Buddhism provided a world view and the
philosophical basis for arts and architecture. Second, it offered
the basic blue print for new art forms needed in their religious
By the twelfth
century, Zen was introduced in Japan by the monk Eisai and others
in the form of Tendai teaching. The Kamakura period (1185-1392)
marked an impact on Japanese architecture and philosophy. In addition
to the cult of the samurai, Zen Buddhism and its architecture had
a great influence on Japan. By the fourteenth century, the sect
was firmly and widely accepted, especially by the samurai (the military
the Muromachi period, Chinese paintings were brought from Song China
during the Kamakura period creating a great wave of influence on
Japanese painting techniques. In the early years of the Moromachi
period, most Japanese paintings were the result of copying from
famous Chinese landscapes. The paintings were made during the Song
and Yuan dynasties, with portrait figures that related to Chinese
Taoism and Buddhism.
Many Zen monks
began to establish themselves as painters. Among these were Kichizan
Mincho, his works began in monochrome and colored paintings. The
popular painting style during this time was of Chinese verses composed
at Zen monasteries, in which ink paintings in combination with poems
by Zen monks called Shigajiku Scrolls. An example of these was the
hanging scroll Catching a Catfish with a Gourd, done by Josetsu,
a Zen monk.